A former industrial hub, Łódz is the third largest municipality in Poland and the capital of Łódz region. Up until the 1960s, the city relied heavily on its textile industry and once this was in steady decline, the unemployment rate soared. In the early 2000s, 20% of the city’s population were out of a job, eventually leading 25% of the people to move away. Today, Łódz has become a major hub for the Polish business service sector. Infrastructure has developed and the city is more connected to major transport routes. Unemployment has dropped and stabilised at 6%. With many educational institutions and students making up approx. 10% of the city’s population, Łódz is considered an academic centre of Poland. Still, the city remains economically fragile with low activity rates, and ongoing population decline.