Amadora is a densely populated municipality close to Lisbon, where many young people are confronted with unemployment, precarious work, poverty and lack of affordable housing. It is also an area where public services and nongovernmental organisations work every day with young people from various ethnic origins to improve their living conditions and future prospects.
A diverse and entrepreneurial city with a stable social democracy, Amsterdam has often been at the forefront in debates on the creative city, smart city, entrepreneurial governance and large-scale urban developments.
Following the industrial recession of the 1980s, Barakaldo experienced significant population decline and local unemployment rose to over 10%. At the turn of the century, much of the town’s industrial heritage was redeveloped and the population stabilized at just over 100,000 people.
The capital and largest city of Northern Ireland, Belfast is a city in redevelopment as it recovers from three decades of violent struggles resulting from ethno-national and ethno-religious divisions, commonly called the Troubles. After decades of population decline, the city is growing again and rebuilding while navigating communal segregation and the legacy of conflict.
Bologna is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna province and home to the world’s oldest university. Despite it being the second highest Italian province in terms of GDP per capita, Bologna’s population has been stagnating and ageing.
Located NW of Stockholm, Borlänge is a former industrial city having seen stagnant population numbers for half a century. The population has increased somewhat since 1970 and now exceeds 50,000 and most of the modest expansion is due to a rather recent influx of refugee migrants from Somalia and the Middle East.
The economy in the region of Bratislava accounts for about a quarter of the national GDP, despite only being home to 12% of the country’s population, and the tertiary sector provides 80% of jobs. The city has been much more successful in retaining its population than much of the Central and Eastern European region and has seen falling unemployment rates and decreasing numbers of students in higher education.
Chemnitz is an early industrial city that was largely destroyed during WWII. Chemnitz has experienced socio-spatial fragmentation, intensified by a shrinking population and changing urban landscape. Today, the area is characterised by shrinking neglected neighbourhoods with high vacancy rates, existing next to (re-)emerging upper and middle-class environments, separated by parks and green spaces.
The town of Corby has gone through multiple periods of substantial transition in the past century. Characterized by high unemployment following the decline of the steel industry in the town in the 1970s, Corby was the site of redevelopment schemes and regeneration for two decades.